常用的 IPv6 地址汇总

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本文最后一次被修改是在:2018年09月27日21:59:17

一、单播地址:

1、特殊地址:

  • ::/128 — 未指定地址
  • ::1/128 — 用于到本地主机的环回地址

2、链路本地地址:

  • FE80::/10( FE80:: ~ FEBF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF )

3、Local IPv6 unicast addresses(本地 IPv6 单播地址,可以理解为私有地址):

  • FC::/7( FC00:: ~ FDFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF )— 在 RFC 4193 中定义
  • FEC0::/10( FEC0:: ~ FEEF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF )— 已经废弃的私有地址

4、全球单播地址:

  • 2000::/3( 2000:: ~ 3FFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF )

5、用于 Teredo 通道:

  • 2001::/32( 2001:: ~ 2001::FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF )

6、用于 ORCHIDv2 :

  • 2001:20::/28( 2001:20:: ~ 2001:2F:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF )

7、用于文档和示例源代码中的地址:

  • 2001:DB8::/32( 2001:DB8:: ~ 2001:DB8:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF )

8、用于 6 to 4 Tunnel :

  • 2002::/16( 2002:: ~ 2002:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF )

9、IPv6 有两种内嵌 IPv4 的方式:

  • ::0:0/96( ::0:0 ~ ::FFFF:FFFF )— IPv4 兼容地址,格式也可写为 ::A.B.C.D ,其中 < A.B.C.D > 代表 IPv4 地址,例如 ::192.168.89.9 ,等价于 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:c0a8:5909 ;
  • ::FFFF:0:0/96( ::FFFF:0:0 ~ ::FFFF:FFFF:FFFF )— IPv4 映射地址,格式也可写为 ::FFFF:A.B.C.D ,其中 < A.B.C.D > 代表 IPv4 地址,例如 ::FFFF:192.168.89.9 ,等价于 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:ffff:c0a8:5909 。

需要注意的是,IPv4 兼容地址已经被舍弃了,所以今后的设备和程序中可能不会支持这种地址格式。但 IPv4 映射地址似乎也不推荐使用,因为从操作系统层面来看也不是那么地安全,详情请点击这里

10、用于 IPv4 / IPv6 转换:

  • 64:FF9B::/96( 64:FF9B:: ~ 64:FF9B::FFFF:FFFF )— 由 RFC 6052 中定义

11、其他废除的前缀 :

  • 100::/64( 100:: ~ 100::FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF )— RFC 6666 中废除的前缀
  • 2001:10::/28( 2001:10:: ~ 2001:1F:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF )— 先前用于 ORCHID

二、组播地址:

组播地址格式由 RFC 3513 定义。

1、所有组播地址:

  • FF00::/8

2、Node-Local Scope:

FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 所有节点(主机)的组播地址(All Nodes Address) [ADDARCH]
FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 所有路由器的组播地址(All Routers Address) [ADDARCH]
FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:101 在相同节点下作为发送者的所有 NTP(Network Time Protocol)服务器(all NTP servers on the same node as the sender)
FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:109 在相同节点下用于组播传输协议(MTP,Multicast Transport Protocol)

3、Link-Local Scope:

FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 所有节点(主机)的组播地址(All the nodes of the link) [ADDARCH]
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 所有路由器的组播地址(All the routers of the link) [ADDARCH]
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:3 Unassigned [JBP]
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:4 DVMRP Routers [RFC1075,JBP]
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:5 所有 OSPF 路由器组播地址(OSPFIGP) [RFC2328,Moy]
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:6 所有 OSPF 的 DR 路由器组播地址(OSPFIGP Designated Routers) [RFC2328,Moy]
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:7 ST Routers [RFC1190,KS14]
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:8 ST Hosts [RFC1190,KS14]
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:9 所有 RIP 路由器组播地址(RIP Routers) [RFC2080]
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:A EIGRP Routers [Farinacci]
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:B Mobile-Agents [Bill Simpson]
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:D 所有 PIM 路由器组播地址(All the PIM routers of the link) [Farinacci]
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:E RSVP-ENCAPSULATION [Braden]
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:101 在相同链路下作为发送者的所有 NTP(Network Time Protocol)服务器(all NTP servers on the same link as the sender)
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:109 在相同链路下用于组播传输协议(MTP,Multicast Transport Protocol)
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:1:1 Link Name [Harrington]
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:1:2 All-dhcp-agents [Bound,Perkins]
FF02:0:0:0:0:1:FFxx:xxxx
(FF02::1:FFxx:xxxx/104)
请求节点组播地址(Solicited-Node Address) [ADDARCH]

4、Site-Local Scope:

FF05:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 站点本地范围所有路由器组播地址(All the routers of the site) [ADDARCH]
FF05:0:0:0:0:0:0:101 在相同站点下作为发送者的所有 NTP(Network Time Protocol)服务器(all NTP servers at the same site as the sender)
FF05:0:0:0:0:0:0:109 在相同站点下用于组播传输协议(MTP,Multicast Transport Protocol)
FF05:0:0:0:0:0:1:3 All-dhcp-servers [Bound,Perkins]
FF05:0:0:0:0:0:1:4 All-dhcp-relays [Bound,Perkins]
FF05:0:0:0:0:0:1:1000 ~ FF05:0:0:0:0:0:1:13FF Service Location [RFC2165]

5、Global Scope:

FF0E:0:0:0:0:0:0:101 在互联网上所有的 NTP(Network Time Protocol)服务器(all NTP servers in the Internet)
FF0E:0:0:0:0:0:0:109 在互联网上用于组播传输协议(MTP,Multicast Transport Protocol)

6、SSM addresses range:

  • FF3x::/32(Only addresses in FF3x::/96 should be used now,由 RFC 3306 定义)

三、关于 IPv6 组播地址的 scope:

摘自 RFC 2373 —— IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture,Page 14:

   An IPv6 multicast address is an identifier for a group of nodes.  A
   node may belong to any number of multicast groups.  Multicast
   addresses have the following format:

   |   8    |  4 |  4 |                  112 bits                   |
   +------ -+----+----+---------------------------------------------+
   |11111111|flgs|scop|                  group ID                   |
   +--------+----+----+---------------------------------------------+

      11111111 at the start of the address identifies the address as
      being a multicast address.

                                    +-+-+-+-+
      flgs is a set of 4 flags:     |0|0|0|T|
                                    +-+-+-+-+

         The high-order 3 flags are reserved, and must be initialized to
         0.

         T = 0 indicates a permanently-assigned ("well-known") multicast
         address, assigned by the global internet numbering authority.

         T = 1 indicates a non-permanently-assigned ("transient")
         multicast address.

      scop is a 4-bit multicast scope value used to limit the scope of
      the multicast group.  The values are:

         0  reserved
         1  node-local scope
         2  link-local scope
         3  (unassigned)
         4  (unassigned)
         5  site-local scope
         6  (unassigned)
         7  (unassigned)
         8  organization-local scope
         9  (unassigned)
         A  (unassigned)
         B  (unassigned)
         C  (unassigned)
         D  (unassigned)
         E  global scope
         F  reserved

      group ID identifies the multicast group, either permanent or
      transient, within the given scope.

四、All Scope Multicast Addresses:

以下地址在 RFC 2375 中定义。

注意:X 表示 IPv6 组播地址的 scope 。

FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 Reserved Multicast Address [ADDARCH]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:100 VMTP Managers Group [RFC1045,DRC3]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:101 Network Time Protocol (NTP) [RFC1119,DLM1]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:102 SGI-Dogfight [AXC]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:103 Rwhod [SXD]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:104 VNP [DRC3]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:105 Artificial Horizons – Aviator [BXF]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:106 NSS – Name Service Server [BXS2]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:107 AUDIONEWS – Audio News Multicast [MXF2]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:108 SUN NIS+ Information Service [CXM3]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:109 MTP Multicast Transport Protocol [SXA]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:10A IETF-1-LOW-AUDIO [SC3]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:10B IETF-1-AUDIO [SC3]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:10C IETF-1-VIDEO [SC3]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:10D IETF-2-LOW-AUDIO [SC3]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:10E IETF-2-AUDIO [SC3]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:10F IETF-2-VIDEO [SC3]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:110 MUSIC-SERVICE [Guido van Rossum]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:111 SEANET-TELEMETRY [Andrew Maffei]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:112 SEANET-IMAGE [Andrew Maffei]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:113 MLOADD [Braden]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:114 any private experiment [JBP]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:115 DVMRP on MOSPF [Moy]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:116 SVRLOC [Veizades]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:117 XINGTV <hgxing@aol.com>
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:118 microsoft-ds <arnoldm@microsoft.com>
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:119 nbc-pro <bloomer@birch.crd.ge.com>
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:11A nbc-pfn <bloomer@birch.crd.ge.com>
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:11B lmsc-calren-1 [Uang]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:11C lmsc-calren-2 [Uang]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:11D lmsc-calren-3 [Uang]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:11E lmsc-calren-4 [Uang]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:11F ampr-info [Janssen]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:120 mtrace [Casner]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:121 RSVP-encap-1 [Braden]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:122 RSVP-encap-2 [Braden]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:123 SVRLOC-DA [Veizades]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:124 rln-server [Kean]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:125 proshare-mc [Lewis]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:126 dantz [Yackle]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:127 cisco-rp-announce [Farinacci]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:128 cisco-rp-discovery [Farinacci]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:129 gatekeeper [Toga]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:12A iberiagames [Marocho]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:201 “rwho” Group (BSD) (unofficial) [JBP]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:202 SUN RPC PMAPPROC_CALLIT [BXE1]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:2:0000 ~ FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:2:7FFD Multimedia Conference Calls [SC3]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:2:7FFE SAPv1 Announcements [SC3]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:2:7FFF SAPv0 Announcements (deprecated) [SC3]
FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:2:8000 ~ FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:2:FFFF SAP Dynamic Assignments [SC3]

引用:

一、References

   [ADDARCH] Hinden, R., and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
             Architecture", RFC 2373, July 1998.

   [AUTORFC] Thompson, S., and T. Narten, "IPv6 Stateless Address
             Autoconfiguration", RFC 1971, August 1996.

   [ETHER]   Crawford, M., "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet
             Networks", Work in Progress.

   [RFC1045] Cheriton, D., "VMTP: Versatile Message Transaction Protocol
             Specification", RFC 1045, February 1988.

   [RFC1075] Waitzman, D., Partridge, C., and S. Deering, "Distance
             Vector Multicast Routing Protocol", RFC 1075, November
             1988.

   [RFC1112] Deering, S., "Host Extensions for IP Multicasting", STD 5,
             RFC 1112, Stanford University, August 1989.

   [RFC1119] Mills, D., "Network Time Protocol (Version 1),
             Specification and Implementation", STD 12, RFC 1119, July
             1988.

   [RFC1190] Topolcic, C., Editor, "Experimental Internet Stream
             Protocol, Version 2 (ST-II)", RFC 1190, October 1990.

   [RFC2080] Malkin, G., and R. Minnear, "RIPng for IPv6", RFC 2080,
             January 1997.

   [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
             Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2165] Veizades, J., Guttman, E., Perkins, C., and S. Kaplan
             "Service Location Protocol", RFC 2165 June 1997.

   [RFC2328] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", STD 54, RFC 2328, April 1998.

二、People

   <arnoldm@microsoft.com>

   [AXC] Andrew Cherenson <arc@SGI.COM>

   [Braden] Bob Braden, <braden@isi.edu>, April 1996.

   [Bob Brenner]

   [Bressler] David J. Bressler, <bressler@tss.com>, April 1996.

   <bloomer@birch.crd.ge.com>

   [Bound] Jim Bound <bound@zk3.dec.com>

   [BXE1] Brendan Eic <brendan@illyria.wpd.sgi.com>

   [BXF] Bruce Factor <ahi!bigapple!bruce@uunet.UU.NET>

   [BXS2] Bill Schilit <schilit@parc.xerox.com>

   [Casner] Steve Casner, <casner@isi.edu>, January 1995.

   [CXM3] Chuck McManis <cmcmanis@sun.com>

   [Tim Clark]

   [DLM1] David Mills <Mills@HUEY.UDEL.EDU>

   [DRC3] Dave Cheriton <cheriton@PESCADERO.STANFORD.EDU>

   [DXS3] Daniel Steinber <Daniel.Steinberg@Eng.Sun.COM>

   [Farinacci] Dino Farinacci, <dino@cisco.com>

   [GSM11] Gary S. Malkin <GMALKIN@XYLOGICS.COM>

   [Harrington] Dan Harrington, <dan@lucent.com>, July 1996.

   <hgxing@aol.com>

   [IANA] IANA <iana@iana.org>

   [Janssen] Rob Janssen, <rob@pe1chl.ampr.org>, January 1995.

   [JBP] Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>

   [JXM1] Jim Miner <miner@star.com>

   [Kean] Brian Kean, <bkean@dca.com>, August 1995.

   [KS14] <mystery contact>

   [Lee] Choon Lee, <cwl@nsd.3com.com>, April 1996.

   [Lewis] Mark Lewis, <Mark_Lewis@ccm.jf.intel.com>, October 1995.

   [Malamud] Carl Malamud, <carl@radio.com>, January 1996.

   [Andrew Maffei]

   [Marohco] Jose Luis Marocho, <73374.313@compuserve.com>, July 1996.

   [Moy] John Moy <jmoy@casc.com>

   [MXF2] Martin Forssen <maf@dtek.chalmers.se>

   [Perkins] Charlie Perkins, <cperkins@corp.sun.com>

   [Guido van Rossum]

   [SC3] Steve Casner <casner@isi.edu>

   [Simpson] Bill Simpson <bill.simpson@um.cc.umich.edu> November 1994.

   [Joel Snyder]

   [SXA] Susie Armstrong <Armstrong.wbst128@XEROX.COM>

   [SXD] Steve Deering <deering@PARC.XEROX.COM>

   [tynan] Dermot Tynan, <dtynan@claddagh.ie>, August 1995.

   [Toga] Jim Toga, <jtoga@ibeam.jf.intel.com>, May 1996.

   [Uang] Yea Uang <uang@force.decnet.lockheed.com> November 1994.

   [Veizades] John Veizades,  <veizades@tgv.com>, May 1995.

   [Yackle] Dotty Yackle, <ditty_yackle@dantz.com>, February 1996.

 

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3 Comments

  1. 今天( 2016年12月14日19:35:00 )对本文进行了修改。查阅了一些 RFC 文档,增加了大量的 IPv6 地址,相当于是对本文进行了重写。

  2. 今天( 2018年09月25日23:12:46 )增加了 IPv6 的两种内嵌 IPv4 的方式。

  3. 今天( 2018年09月27日21:59:17 )对本文进行了修改。进一步完善,收录更多 IPv6 地址。

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